1.1     Background to the Study

          The responsibility of training a child always lives in the hand of the parents. This congruent with the common association sociologist that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home, which is relevant in the in this discussion. It is not out of place to imagine that socio-economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school. Furthermore, whatsoever affects the development environment of children would possibly affect their education or disposition to it. Parent status is one of such variables. When a woman’s nutritional status improves, so does the nutrition of her young children.

According to Rothstein (2004) he asserted that the parent of different styles of child rearing, different ways of disciplining their children and different ways of reacting to their children. These differences do not express themselves consistently as expected in the case of every family rather the influence the average tendencies of families for different occupational classes.

Hill et al (2004) had also argued that socio-economic status of parental do not affect the academic performance, but also makes it possible for children from low background to compete with their counterparts from high socio-economic background under the same academic environment.

Moreover, Smith, Fagan and Vivand (2002) had asserted significant predicator of intellectual performance at age of 8years included parent socio-economic status (SES). In the same vein, other researches had posited that parental socio-economic status could affect school children as to bring about flexibility to adjustment to the different schedules. (Gverinet al 2001) In a previous local finding in Nigeria, Oni (2002) had reported that in the rural community where nutrition al status is relatively low and health problems are prevalent, children academic performance is greatly hindered. This assertionis again hinged on nature of parent socio-economic background. Moreover, Eze (1996) had opined that when a child get proper nutrition, health care, stimulation during pre-school years, the ability to interact with take optimal advantage of the full complement of resources offered by any formal learning environment is enhanced.

The foregoing discussion had established that socio-economic status and host of other factor relating to home environment of students, such as educational background of parents, health status of students, parental occupation and family size could have effects on the children academic achievement.


1.3     Statement of the Problem

The issue of massive failure among secondary school students has become a very crucial problem especially as the numbers of educational wastages increase year after year.

Also, poverty and decline in the living standard of families has also posed a huge means to student academic performance. In this regard, this study identified some possible which has triggered an inquiry in to the study.

1.4     Purpose of the Study

The objectives of this study were:

  1. To determine the effect of gender on students academic performance.
  2. To examine the impact of school type on students academic performance.

iii.      To examine the impact of parental socio economic status on academic performance of school children.

1.5     Significance of the Study      

It is envisaged that the finding of this study may exposed some factors that might be responsible for poor performance of students in school. The identified areas where government at

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1.6     Research Questions

  1. Is academic performance of students affected by their gender?
  2.       Does school type affect the academic performance of students?

iii.      What is the impact of parental socio-economic status on academic performance of Secondary School Students in the study area?

1.7     Research Hypotheses

H01:   There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female pupils.

H02: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of pupils in private and public schools.

Ho3: Students parental socio economic background has no

significant effect on their academic performance.

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