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EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTIVIST BASED TEACHING STRATEGY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE

 


SUMMARY

This study investigated the effect of constructivist based teaching strategy on academic performance of integrated science students in Epe Local government Area of Lagos State. Four Junior Secondary Schools were used a total of one hundred and twenty students were used for this study. The experimental group consists of sixty students who were instructed using the constructivist method while the other sixty students who sowed as the control group instructed using the traditional method. A pre-test and an achievement test were administered on all subjects. The results obtained from the study show that:

  • there is a significant difference in achievement test scores between students instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught using Conventional classroom teaching method.
  • there is a significant difference in achievement test scores between male and female students instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy.
  • there is no significant difference in achievement test scores between students of high abilities instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught with traditional classroom teaching method.
  • there is no significant difference in achievement test scores between students of low abilities instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught with traditional classroom teaching method.

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

Critics of public education have argued that many Nigerian students do not possess the depth of knowledge or skills to assure either personal life success or national economic competitiveness (Akpan, 2006). A particular concern of the critics has been the apparent inability of many students to engage in complex problem-solving activities and to apply school knowledge and skills to real-life problems in workplace settings (Akpan, 2006). What teachers and schools face is a fundamental redefinition of what it means to be a student or a teacher and what it means to learn or to teach. Educators are confronted with a paradigm shift in teaching and learning which is driven by the increasing anomalies of the current educational system (Kim, 2012). High drop-out rates, low skill and knowledge levels among many students, low levels of student engagement in school work and poor international comparisons suggest that the current educational paradigm is weak or inappropriate.

Educators must understand that changes in students’ outcomes must be supported by parallel changes in curriculum and instruction. However, it is apparent that many of today’s teachers are caught in the midst of a change for which they may not have been professionally prepared (Dogru and Kalender, 2007). Many teachers were educated in the classrooms where the role of the student was to memorize information, conduct well regulated experiments, perform mathematical calculations using a specific algorithm and were then tested on their ability to repeat these tasks or remember specific facts. The ideas which are central to an education which defines competence as the ability of the student to apply knowledge and skills to unfamiliar problems are not new. These ideas were found in traditional apprenticeship programs, where daughters and sons learned life sustaining skills from parents and they were central to the successes of all traditional peoples. Theorists in cognition, curriculum and instruction (e.g. Di Vesta, Vgotsky, Von Glaserfed, etc.) are now providing the underlying rationale and language for discussing this fundamental change in teaching and learning which is at the heart of the current school improvement agenda.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Knowledge is not attained but constructed (von Glasersfeld, 1999). This statement came from a new challenge to the concept of traditional knowledge. Today, we are facing the challenge from an educational paradigm shift in secondary schools education in Nigeria. Parents and the general public have criticized the secondary schools and classroom environments, arguing that they are not ready to meet learner’s needs/ achievement and the demands of the industrial society in this 21st century information society. Some complain about ……………………………………

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study will be guided with the following research questions.

  1. Is there any significant difference in achievement test scores between students instructed using constructivist-based teaching strategy and those instructed using the traditional classroom teaching method?
  2. Is there any significant difference in achievement test scores between male and female students instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy?
  3. Is there any significant difference in achievement test scores between high ability students taught with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught with traditional classroom teaching method?
  4. Is there any significant difference in achievement test scores between low ability students taught with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught with traditional classroom teaching method?

 

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

From the research questions raised, four hypotheses will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Ho1:  There is no significant difference in achievement test scores between students instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught using Conventional classroom teaching method.

Ho2:  There is no significant difference in achievement test scores between male and female students      instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy.

Ho3: There is no significant difference in achievement test scores between students of high abilities instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught with traditional classroom     teaching method.

Ho4: There is no significant difference in the achievement test scores of students of low ability instructed with constructivist based teaching strategy and those taught with  traditional classroom teaching method.

CHAPTER TWO

 INTRODUCTION

This chapter makes an attempt to review related literatures to give solid support from earlier studies to this study. The organization of this chapter is as follows:

  • 1 Theoretical Framework
  • 2 Basis of Constructivist Teaching
  • 3 Epistemological base of Constructivist Teaching
  • 4 Psychological base of Constructivist Teaching
  • 5 Theoretical Assumption of Constructivist Teaching
  • 6 Principles and Strategies of Constructivist Teaching

CHAPTER THREE

 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     RESEARCH DESIGN

This study is a quasi experimental research and therefore a Quasi experimental research design will be employed.

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1    RESULT`

4.1.1           Ho1:  There is no significant difference in achievement test scores between students instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught using Conventional classroom teaching method.

 

Table 1:      Comparison of achievement test scores of traditional and constructivist based teaching method

Group N Mean Std. Dev. Df t-cal t-table Level of Sig.
Traditionalism 60 14.717 2.56503 118 1.017 0.300 0.05
Constructivism 60 14.200 2.65407

Table 1 above shows a mean value of 14.72 and 14.20 for traditionalism and constructivism respectively, standard deviation 2.57 for traditionalism and 2.65 for constructivism at 0.05 level of significance. The calculated t-value is 1.017 while the table t-value is 0.300. Since the calculated t-value is greater than t-value, therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. The result obtained from this study revealed that there is a significant difference in achievement test scores between students instructed with constructivist-based teaching strategy and those taught using Conventional classroom teaching method.

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS

In view of the findings from this study, the following recommendations are made:

  • Workshop, seminar and conferences for teachers in order to operate their pedagogies using the constructivist based teaching method.
  • Policy on education should be geared toward the practice of self learning which is an attempt to make education more liberal and more universal in such a way that a learner can teach himself, if given the kind of environment and guidance by the teachers to enhance students learning by constructivist process in classroom where activities are planned and implemented

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